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Séparés par des virgules

Soutenance de thèse de Madame Clarissa DE ARAUJO MARTINS

08h00 | Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso Do Sul | BRÉSIL

Sujet : « Multi-taxa responses to different environmental gradients: a taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic approach »

Directeur de thèse : Monsieur Olivier PAYS-VOLARD

RÉSUMÉ

Biological communities are composed of interacting or potentially interacting organisms. They are the result of events related to history and neutrality and may also be the result of evolutionary and ecological mechanisms. Regarding ecological mechanisms, species in a given community may respond to ecological interactions, such as competition, mutualism, facilitation. In addition, they can also respond to the abiotic environment, for example, environmental gradients of climate, soil, vegetation cover. In this sense, the main goal of my thesis was to understand how different environmental gradients may shape biological communities. Using two types of environmental gradients, (i) latitudinal diversity and (ii) land-use intensification (particularly, native vegetation loss in the Serra da Bodoquena MS, Brazil) gradients. In the first chapter, I investigated how phylogenetic patterns in plant, metazoan, and microorganisms communities differ between the tropical and temperate regions. We discussed the classical hypotheses of latitudinal patterns of diversity and connected with possible mechanisms that may have generated these patterns. In the second chapter, we used taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic metrics to understand how native vegetation loss affects multiple biological. Specifically, we tested whether the response to native vegetation loss of aquatic insects, odonatans, anurans, and terrestrial mammals is linear or not. In the third chapter, we investigated if the body size of odonatans, anurans and terrestrial mammals influences the response to the native vegetation loss. Here, we discussed mechanisms related to dispersal ability, metabolic rates and some intrinsic characteristics of each of the taxonomic groups.

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